70.1 percent of men and 52 percent of ladies outline the position of women as “subordinated persons”, and only 28.7 p.c of men and 33 p.c of women contemplate the place of a girl as equal to a man . 15 % of women consider that they play the leading role; nevertheless, in this case, single women are, as a rule, heads of families.
Taking into consideration our consideration to gender features, expenses of men and women for their very own personal needs (for instance, bills for hygienic supplies etc.) are of curiosity. Men and ladies cannot fulfill their personal needs in full; these figures are quite small in Turkmenistan and amount to US$ 12.2 for men and US$ 12.three for ladies on common (Fig. thirteen). The greatest share of girls’s income (18.four%) is generated on the personal garden plots ; their labor in full-time jobs generates only four.7 percent of earnings.
At current, equal access of all citizens independently of gender, nationality, and social origin to academic establishments is ensured in Turkmenistan. Although most of establishments of higher schooling are situated in Ashgabad, the open enrolment is implemented according to quotas that keep in mind the wants of regions and based on interviews carried out regionally. There are some direct and oblique limitations, as everywhere in the world, associated to the potential of academic institutions and ever-growing demand for a number of professions, also there is the age requirement. This survey has shown that the extent of training of rural inhabitants is relatively low (Fig. 20).
However, to a larger or lesser extent, this refers to urban inhabitants. In villages, as before, their residents have the very restricted opportunities for leisure and leisure. However, throughout latest years, regardless of potential alternatives, lower within the quantity and share of women who are studying in institutions of higher schooling and particular secondary education takes place and might ends in lowering their academic stage. Each citizen of Turkmenistan can obtain freed from charge schooling within the framework of the state standard.
Input of pensioners, and members of the family receiving state benefits into the family budget, on common, quantities to 14.9 p.c. It ought to be noted that this income is solely based on payments to retired and disabled people in the type of state pensions and advantages.
An indicator of precise equality in rights of ladies within households can be the right to manage the household’s budget in accordance with her discretion i.e. to have access to financial sources, and to make selections. A woman can possess this right if she has economic independence from her husband or different members of her family. As talked about above, the earnings of girls is approaching to the revenue of men. However, solely 2.2 percent of male respondents and thirteen % of female respondents consider that ladies have the right to manage the family budget, fifty seven.4 p.c of men and 23 percent of ladies think about that only men can do it.
In our case, bills for foodstuff, on average, make up 43.2 percent of revenue. However, it is necessary to notice that the distinction in expenses for meals throughout the republic is appreciable (from 15% to 95%) The proportion of families turkmen woman whose expenditures for meals do not exceed 15 to 20 % is negligible, only 8 percent of all surveyed families. Expenses for training and medical services (1.2% and 4.1% correspondingly) are also extremely small.
At the same time, the primary and second ranges of training are obligatory for all. The high share of the state bills supplies accessibility of all forms and types of academic companies.
Most of all men (83.9%) and girls (77%) that live within the region into account have secondary training, i.e. they left secondary faculty however didn’t have opportunities to proceed their coaching in particular secondary or larger training institutions. As has been mentioned, the typical age of respondents equals to forty two years i.e. their young years have contemporized with the interval of fundamental transformations in the nation and receiving good schooling was problematic. As has been proven in this survey, opinions of women and men on woman’s status are completely different.
22.9 percent of men and 50 % of ladies assume that every one decisions relating to bills should be jointly made . As was talked about with respect to other countries, expenses for foodstuff are a vital indication of family’s welfare. If these expenses exceed 20 p.c of revenue then the income can’t be thought-about as sufficient.